Cryptology embraces two branche: Cryptanalysis & Cryptography
6 mains concepts of cryptography:
A base is a set of symbols (digits) that can be used to represent a value (number).
The significance of each digit depends on its position (power of N, where N is the number of digits in the base).
The computer has a processor, which contains cores. Each core contains FPU (Floating Point Unit), ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit), registers (very quick memory 1-3 cycles to access), caches (L1, L2, L3 for each core or shared in the whole CPU). The computer also has RAM (80 cycles) and mass-storage memory (milliseconds).